Egyptians headed to the polls last Saturday in a two-day run-off election to determine their next freely elected president. But this election has not come without its fair share of controversy.
On Friday, Egypt's military rulers consolidated power by ordering the shut-down of the Islamist-led Parliament based on a court ruling from the day before, locking out lawmakers, and seizing the right to issue laws (even after a new president takes office). The military's move represents a setback on Egypt's path to democracy and almost certainly means that the military will not cede power to a civilian government within the next month, as it had originally promised.
Many Egyptians have called the military's latest power grab a "coup." On Thursday, the Egyptian high court had issued an order to dissolve Parliament, claiming that political parties had wrongly been allowed to compete for the one-third of seats designated for individual candidates. The court's decision is viewed by some as an attempt to undercut the Muslim Brotherhood's power. After performing well in the first round of Egypt's elections last month, the Brotherhood has been drawing up plans to revise the Constitution, and appeared likely to win the presidency as well.
All that may change now, however, as Mohammed Morsi, head of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party, faces off against Ahmed Shafiq, a former air force general and Hosni Mubarak's last prime minister. With a parliament that has been dissolved by the military, the winner of this weekend's presidential run-off will take office without the oversight of a sitting parliament, and without a permanent constitution to define his powers or duties. Both the Brotherhood and Shafiq have claimed that they will win the presidency, while a significant movement has pledged to either boycott the vote or void their ballots in protest.
The Brotherhood has warned that Egypt is facing a situation that is "even more dangerous than that in the final days of Mubarak's rule."
Polling stations open on Saturday and Sunday at 08:00 a.m. and close at 20:00 p.m., but voting is likely to be extended on both days. Final results are expected from the Higher Presidential Election Commission (HPEC) by 21 June, but are expected to arrive much earlier.
PolicyMic will be following the results of the election live. For real-time updates (in EST), refresh this page.
6/24, 10:48 AM:
6/24, 10:32 AM: Detailed election results:
26,420,763 total votes
843,252 voided ballots
Shafiq 12,347,380 (48.3%)
Morsi 13,230,131 (51.7%)
Voter turnout: 51.85%
Number of eligible voters: 50,958,794
6/24, 10:30 AM: Morsi is declared winner of the presidential elections.
6/24, 10:22 AM: Farouk Sultan notes that 456 appeals were submitted by both candidates, although most of them were rejected.
6/24, 10:14 AM: Having not announced the final results yet, Sultan is going through all the mistakes and appeals that were submitted in heavy detail.
6/24, 9:53 PM: As Farouk Sultan of the Commission prepares to announce the results, he gives a lengthy and defensive speech on the jurisdiction of the Commission and its role as an independent body.
6/24, 9:24 AM: Inside the Elections Commission press conference (photo via Al-Nahar TV)
6/24, 9:06 AM: As election results are expected to be announced, Tahrir fills up.
Tahrir is packed. Majority of Muslim Brotherhood. Protesters praying that Morsi wins, as SPEC should announce results now. #Egypt— Jonathan Rashad (@JonathanRashad) June 24, 2012
6/24, 8:20 AM Election results expected any minute now.
6/23, 2:04 PM: The Elections Commission has stated that the final and official election results will be announced tomorrow, Sunday, June 24 at 3 pm (Egypt time). Commenting on the elections, Prime Minister Ganzouri said: "The elections were honest on the part of the state and the rigging that happened was on the part of those who participated." (via Egypt Independent)
6/22, 12:44 PM: The Elections Commission notes that ballots from 4 ballot boxes have been recounted in Assuit.
6/22, 12:26 PM: A government source has said that Shafiq will be announced as the winner of the presidential elections with 50.7% of the vote on Sunday. Sources at the Elections Commission would not confirm this. (via Al-Ahram)
6/21, 3:40 PM: The Commission is still working to determine how to deal with the appeals and complaints it received from both presidential candidates; according to informed sources, it may be considering hosting re-elections in more than 100 polling stations. These sources also confirmed that Morsi is ahead so far according to SPEC's count and this would not be reversed if disputed votes were discounted. Excluding whole stations from the final results would affect both candidates and would still leave Morsi in the lead. These sources note that the only way Morsi's win would be reversed is the hosting of re-elections. (via Al-Ahram)
6/20, 2:56 PM: The Elections Commission notes that it will not be releasing results tomorrow, as initially expected.
6/20, 10:03 AM: The Elections Commission has noted that it is reviewing almost 400 electoral complaints before it will be able to release the final election results. (via Ahram Online)
6/20, 9:23 AM: "Judges for Egypt," a coalition of independent judges has said that Morsi has won the elections with 13.2 million votes to Shafiq's 12.3 million. (via Al-Arabiya)
6/19, 4:45 PM: Farouk Sultan of the Presidential Elections Commission has stated that the final and official results of the presidential elections may come out after the initially-expected Thursday date. The Commission has received between 200 and 250 complaints and it will need time to review them. (via Egypt Independent)
6/19, 2:34 PM: Shafiq's campaign says that he won the elections with 11,502,629 to Morsi's 11,071,512 votes.
6/19, 11:20 AM: Morsi campaign releases copies of what are allegedly all of the official vote counts as "proof" of his victory. The document can be accessed here.
6/18, 8:04 PM: Bagato of the Presidential Elections Commission reports that Morsi beat Shafiq by 150,000 votes among Egypt's expat voters. (via Al-Masry Al-Youm)
6/18, 4:32 PM: Adding to the lack of clarity caused by the SCAF's release of a constitutional declaration that significantly limits the power of the presidency, Sameh Ashour, head of the advisory council to the SCAF, has said: "The upcoming president will occupy the office for a short period of time, whether or not he agrees. This is simply because a new constitution will be drafted, followed by new parliamentary elections to take on the legislative power; and therefore, it is not possible in any event for the president to remain in office after a new constitution comes to the light." (via Al-Jazeera)
6/18, 2:13 PM: Shafiq's campaign claims that he is ahead of Morsi by 250,000 votes after the discounting of invalid ballots. Celebrations ensue outside of his headquarters. (Photo via @Sarahcarr)
6/18, 1:57 PM: Hayat TV reports that Morsi received 12.94 million votes or 51.5% to Shafiq's 12.17 million votes or 48.5%.
6/18, 11:40 AM: Celebrations in Tahrir (Photo via @Mad_Darsh)
6/18, 10:59 AM: Ahram Online reports that with all 27 governorates counted and despite a Shafiq win in Cairo, its count indicates that Morsi leads by 929,000 votes and wins with 51.89% of the vote.
6/18, 10:50 AM: Al-Masry Al-Youm releases its vote count, giving Morsi 12,322,549 votes or 51.3%.
6/17, 10:48 PM:
6/17, 10:45 PM: Commenting on Morsi's victory claim, Shafiq's spokesman calls the claim "absurd" and a "pathetic media manipulation."
6/17, 10:30 PM: Morsi gives a victory press conference in which he thanks God for leading the Egyptian people to this path of freedom, touching on the equality of all Egyptians, and noting: "We have come with a message of peace...to all those who cherish peace." (Photo via AP)
6/17, 9:31 PM: The Freedom and Justice Party announces that Morsi will be the next president of Egypt. They noted that with 97% of polling stations reported, Morsi was ahead of Shafiq by 1.2 million votes. The Shafiq campaign initially refused to comment on the FJP victory announcement.
6/17, 4:18 PM: The vote tabulation formally begins at one Cairo polling station. (via ONTv)
6/17, 4:06 PM: In addition to the aforementioned citizen-led tabulation, the Twitter account of the Muslim Brotherhood is also releasing official results via @Ikhwanweb.
6/17, 4:00 PM: Formal closing time for all polling stations across the country.
6/17, 3:59 PM:
6/17, 3:49 PM: Another polling station in Sohag has also released its counted results early, noting that Morsi received 831 votes to Shafiq's 136 votes. One station in Cairo also started counting its votes early despite the fact that some voters were still submitting ballots at the same station. According to reports, a number of other polling stations across the country have not waited for the closing time and have begun counting and releasing final and official results. (via Al-Masry Al-Youm)
6/17, 3:30 PM: Despite the fact that polling stations have not officially closed, the first formal and official election results have come out from a polling station in Kafr El-Sheikh, giving Morsi 70 votes and Shafiq 26 votes. (via Al-Masry Al-Youm)
6/17, 3:08 PM: One polling station in Sharqiya has allegedly already begun counting votes despite the extension of voting till 10 pm. (via Al-Masry Al-Youm)
6/17, 3:00 PM: The Elections Commission has stated that voter turnout in this round of elections is lower than that of the first round.
6/17, 2:55 PM: Ahram Online is reporting a sudden spike in voter turnout as the heat subsides and the closing time for polling stations nears.
6/17, 2:45 PM: A Freedom and Justice Party media spokesman has stated that the Morsi campaign will host a press conference tonight at their headquarters at 11 pm (Egypt time).
6/17, 2:37 PM: In a press conference, Hatem Bagato of the Presidential Elections Commission said that candidates will have the right to demand recounts in certain constituencies on the condition that they provide a valid reason. Also, judges, media, and candidate representatives will be allowed to observe the counting process tonight. (via @EgyptMonocle)
6/17, 2:28 PM: A citizen-led effort to count the results of the presidential election will be available via the link below.
6/17, 2:23 PM: The Interior Ministry has allegedly located those responsible for distributing the pens with ink that disappears in three hours and they will be arrested shortly. According to the source, 180,000 pens were imported to Egypt to be given to voters.
6/17, 2:05 PM: The Brotherhood's Supreme Guide asks "brothers and sisters to stand by the group and pay no attention to [election related] rumors."
6/17, 2:00 PM: Egypt Independent reports that text messages have been circulating claiming that Morsi is ahead and urging people to head to the polls and vote for Shafiq in the last two remaining hours of voting.
6/17, 12:47 PM: Ahram Online reports that a child has been seen in polling stations across Beheira, accompanying voters to make sure they vote for a specific candidate and then receive a bribe in return. Other vote buyers have also taken pre-marked ballots with them into polling stations and left with empty ballots to receive a payment in return.
6/17, 12:25 PM: At the Shafiq campaign headquarters, the media team is at work. (Photo via @RobertMackey)
6/17, 11:50 AM: Prominent Brotherhood member Mohammed El-Beltagi has said that his wife went to cast her ballot and found out that someone had voted in her place (via Ahram Online)
6/17, 11:46 AM Update from Egypt expert Neil Sawhney: "Unlike the hopeful excitement that accompanied last year’s parliamentary elections and last month’s presidential election, a mixture of fear and resignation has marked this week’s run-off between Ahmed Shafik and Mohammed Morsi. Shafik, the preferred candidate of the military and business elite establishment, is increasingly acting like the inevitable future leader. Accompanied by a military guard to a private polling place and surrounded by supporters chanting his name, Shafik could easily be mistaken for any of Egypt’s former strongmen.
The contrast between Shafik and Morsi, who spent two hours waiting in line in the Egyptian heat to cast his ballot, highlights how Morsi has assumed the mantle of the “revolutionary” candidate. Yet the fact that the uncharismatic, long-time leading figure of the Muslim Brotherhood is the revolutionary choice demonstrates how weakened the revolution has become. Many of the young activists and secular liberals who formed the core of last year’s revolution are so disillusioned that they have called for boycotts of the election. Whether these boycotts will galvanize the nation to protest the recent developments or merely allow Mr. Shafik to more easily claim victory remains to be seen."
6/17, 11:30 AM: Farouk Sultan, head of the SPEC, has announced that security forces have arrested someone who was helping voters cast their ballots outside of a polling station in Mansheyet Nasser. Sultan also added that this individual had a laptop and CD containing materials to incite the public to protest outside of the presidential palace and calling for acts of violence in case Shafiq wins the election.
6/17, 11:15 AM: A local rights group, the Maat for Peace, Development and Human Rights, has released a report citing violations which include 'the use of religion' to sway voters. Pre-marked ballots for both Shafiq and Morsi were also found. (via Ahram Online)
6/17, 11:05 AM: The Supreme Presidential Electoral Commission (SPEC) has extended voting hours to 10 pm (Egypt time). Farouk Sultan of the Commission noted that at 5 pm (Egypt time), voter turnout allgedly reached 40%.
6/17, 10:50 AM: A Morsi campaign member has been shot by a Shafiq campaign member at polling station 41 in Sharqiya; the clash descended into a village-wide clash when the families got involved. (via Ahram Online)
6/17, 10:05 AM: Shafiq's campaign has stated that it filed more than 100 reports of rigging in favor of Morsi. The campaign also noted that some judges were falling asleep inside polling stations. Personnel from the Morsi campaign also said that some votes have been bought for Shafiq, especially in Zagazig. (via Egypt Independent)
6/17, 10:00 AM: Ahram Online notes that in general women's polling stations seem to be seeing higher turnout than male ones.
6/17, 9:45 AM: A foreign ministry spokesman announces that the results of expatriate voting will be officially announced on Monday. Initial reports indicate that the majority of expat votes went to Morsi.
6/17, 9:01 AM: A polling station has been closed in Fayoum after an employee was found allegedly stuffing 47 ballots in Morsi's favor. (via Al-Masry Al-Youm)
6/17, 8:58 AM: The Health Ministry has reported 4 elections-related injuries from the second day of elections.
6/17, 8:30 AM: A member of the Millet Council of Alexandria's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Nader Morqos, has told Egypt Independent that Coptic turnout has reached more than 90% of the Coptic population in the governorate. He also added that all Alexandrian Copts have voted for Shafiq.
6/17, 8:22 AM: A number of voters are choosing to void their ballots as the example below shows (the voter opted to vote for Batman rather than either of the two candidates) and a number of other examples here also depict.
6/17, 8:15 AM:
6/17, 8:10 AM:
Judge has helped two women mark their ballots for Morsi. They told her who they wanted but apparently had no idea who was who. #Egypt— Evan Hill (@evanchill) June 17, 2012
6/17, 7:30 AM: More electoral violations have been noted. An Ahram Online reporter saw cars using loudspeakers to convince voters to pick Shafiq in Sharqiya, warning that if they do not do so, "they will pay a fine of LE100." Muslim Brotherhood monitors also claimed to see a polling employee voting on behalf of constituents in Fayoum.
6/17, 7:15 AM: Islam Abdallah, Shafiq's media coordinator in Al-Ibrahimiya has resigned from his position because "the campaign hires ex-prisoners and thugs to rally behind the former prime minister." (via Ahram Online)
6/17, 6:36 AM: MP of what is now a dissolved Parliament, Azza Garf of the Muslim Brotherhood, told Ahram Online: "The turnout is not as low as many people say. Eleven million people voted on the first day of the first round while 14 million participated on the first day of the runoff." It is not clear where she got her turnout numbers from.
6/17, 6:27 AM:
If turnout stays as low as Lawyers Syndicate said (15%) we might see prez elected with around 3m votes in country of nearly 90m ppl.— Evan Hill (@evanchill) June 17, 2012
6/17, 6:08 AM: Egypt Independent has reported that several clashes have taken place today between Shafiq and Morsi supporters in Giza's Haram district, Beheira, Minya, and Qalyubiya, among other locations.
6/17, 5:00 AM: An Interior Ministry source has stated that "Ballot boxes were found safe at all polling stations and were unsealed."
6/17, 4:50 AM: The April 6 Youth Movement has released a statement denouncing the arrest of its members which took place yesterday for alleged electoral violations. The Movement noted that "The police officers told the activists 'the revolution is over' and 'the circus will be over after the elections.'"
6/17, 3:25 AM: A tweet expressing what some regard as the strength or presence of Egypt's "deep state" and the general power and influence of the SCAF.
If Mursi wins, SCAF will render him a very lame duck; if SCAF's creature, Shafiq, wins, he will happily take orders from SCAF - SCAF rules!— Hani Shukrallah (@HaniShukrallah) June 17, 2012
6/17, 3:01 AM: Commenting on yesterday's events, the National Council for Human Rights noted that they received 77 election-related complaints, 66 of which were forwarded on to the Presidential Elections Commission for further investigation.
6/17, 2:28 AM: ONTV covers the opening of polling stations live and the slow trickling in of voters in Alexandria and Giza.
6/17, 2:09 AM: Voting hours have been extended until 9:00 pm (Egypt time) due to the hot weather.
6/17, 2:00 AM: Polling stations open across the nation for the second and final day of voting.
6/16, 10:38 PM: The photo below by Cairo-based photojournalist Jonathan Rashad (@JonathanRashad on Twitter) is just one of many from his collection depicting the first day of voting. His photos can be accessed here.
6/16, 10:00 PM:
Whatever happens, no matter who wins, #Egypt's next president will have a very weak mandate - legally, politically, electorally & morally.— Khaled Elgindy (@elgindy_) June 17, 2012
6/16, 5:00 PM: According to reports by prominent media sources, including Ahram Online, The New York Times, AP, Al-Jazeera, and Voice of America, voter turnout across the nation was at best, mixed, and by most accounts, low, especially compared to the last round of presidential elections. Although districts known to be strongholds for either candidate witnessed lengthy lines at certain points of the day, general turnout appeared light. No official turnout rates were available.
6/16, 3:30 PM: The Ministry of Health noted that around 28 injuries took place throughout the day due to elections-related scuffles and over-crowding at polling stations. (via Egypt Independent)
6/16, 3:00 PM: Polling stations close for the day. They will open again tomorrow at 8:00 am (Egypt time). Ballot boxes will be kept in locked polling stations which will be guarded by security forces overnight.
6/16, 2:45 PM: Preacher Safwat Hegazy has been called in for questioning by the country's Prosecutor-General after a complaint was filed against him for allegedly breaching electoral law by demanding that voters select Morsi while inside a polling station. (via Ahram Online)
6/16, 2:24 PM: A press conference by the Presidential Elections Commission is currently taking place and addresses journalist inquiries on election processes and violations. Farouk Sultan, head of the Commission, said that both candidates committed violations, noting: "We observed more breaches committed by one candidate than the other," without indicating who he was referring to. Sultan did say though that overall the elections on the first day were "90% successful."
6/16, 2:15 PM: Shafiq and Morsi supporters have fought each other with firearms and bladed weapons at one polling station in Daqhaliya, leading to one man sustaining a gunshot wound to his hand and a woman suffering a deep cut to her head. (via Ahram Online)
6/16, 2:04 PM: The group of April 6 Youth Movement members who had been detailed earlier in Nasr City have been released.
6/16, 2:00 PM: The Salafi Nour Party has tweeted this photo which tells voters that the heat has subsided and the lines are now shorter, so tell your relatives, friends, and neighbors to go out and vote against Mubarak's regime.
6/16, 1:45 PM: Lines are getting long and many voters are getting antsy and uncomfortable considering the 95-degree weather in Cairo right now.
6/16, 1:40 PM: Morsi's campaign team has claimed that 69% of voters have allegedly picked their candidate thus far.
6/16, 1:36 PM: An Arabic tweet by Dr. Omar Ashour, Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Doha Center, tells voters to "Vote for the one you can hold accountable when he renegs on his promises."
??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????— Omar Ashour (@DrOmarAshour) June 16, 2012
6/16, 1:32 PM: "Batil" ("Invalid") sticker on voting ballot. The stickers were distributed earlier by the "Mobteloon" campaign which encourages voters to void their votes in protest at the choices available to them.
6/16, 1:30 PM: In Assuit, a Shafiq campaigner complained about the number of Morsi delegates at one polling station, leading to scuffles and the eventual closure of the station.
6/16, 1:21 PM: Al-Jazeera reporters note that voting turnout thus far is significantly less than voter turnout was on the first day of the first round of elections (May 23).
6/16, 12:30 PM: The Egyptian Coalition for Elections Monitoring has submitted a complaint witnessing violations to the campaign silence in different cities and clashes between campaigners of the two candidates. The Coalition also reported unexplained closures of polling stations.
6/16, 11:30 AM: Ahmed Fahmy of the Muslim Brotherhood and Shura Council Chairman has said that "fraud has occurred in most polling stations and this is a proof of the state's lack of neutrality in overseeing the electoral process." He also claimed to see pre-marked ballots for Shafiq as well. (via Egypt Independent)
6/16, 11:00 AM: Marwa Nasser, an Egyptian fixer working for a Finnish media source, is arrested after a Shafiq supporter accused her of trying to influence her vote. Nasser denied this completely and has since been transferred to the General Prosecutor's Office.
6/16, 10:42 AM: Coordinator of the Freedom and Justice Party, Khaled Al-Kazzaz told Ahram Online that some violations have been videotaped in Alexandria including electoral bribes and the presence of military personnel names on the voting registration list.
6/16, 10:25 AM: After the Presidential Commission received information that a shipment of pens whose ink disappears within three hours has arrived in Egypt, voters are now being required to use pens provided by judges at the polling stations. The Health Ministry has reported that 15 people have been injured in elections-related violence today, but they are now in stable conditions.
6/16, 10:18 AM: According to the Lawyers' Syndicate, voting turnout has not exceeded 15% at the majority of polling stations nationwide.
6/16, 10:05 AM: According to Tahrir news, a polling station in Sharqiyya has been shut down after the discovery of 100 ballots already marked for Morsi.
6/16, 9:43 AM: Photo of the ballot (via Egypt Independent)
6/16, 9:19 AM:
6/16, 8:43 AM: Photo of presidential candidate Morsi voting. (via Getty Images)
6/16, 8:18 AM: Seven April 6 Youth Movement members are arrested outside a polling station in Nasr City for holding up pictures of revolutionary martyrs' photos and campaigning against Shafiq.
6/16, 7:45 AM: Muslim Brotherhood observers reported that a group of women outside a polling station in Tanta were giving out money to other women and asking them to vote for Shafiq. Also in Tanta, flyers are being passed out citing quotes by famous figures against Shafiq and asking voters "not to betray the martyrs' blood." (via Ahram Online)
6/16, 7:04 AM: Photo of presidential candidate Shafiq voting (via AP).
6/16, 7:00 AM: Morsi observers in Alexandria say that they saw a number of buses entering a Central Security building and coming out full with plain-clothed men whom they assumed to be soldiers. The campaign suspects that "it is an attempt to mobilize soldiers to vote for Shafiq, even though voting by police and military personnel is illegal." (via Ahram Online)
6/16, 6:34 AM: Ahram Online reports that Shafiq's campaign provides air-conditioned buses to transfer voters to a polling station in Banha. Many are citing the hot weather as reasons preventing some from participating in the process.
6/16, 6:15 AM: The Presidential Elections Commission reports that polling stations will remain open until 9:00 pm (Egypt time) to make up for the late opening of some polling stations. The Commission will hold a press conference tonight at 8:00 pm (Egypt time).
6/16, 5:00 AM: Ahram Online reports that members of Moqateoon, the boycott movement, are passing out flyers and posters in an attempt to dissuade people from a process that provides a choice between "a military state and religious state."
6/16, 3:31 AM: Line outside female polling station in Fayoum (via @FJparty)
6/16, 3:23 AM: Shafiq expected to submit ballot at a polling station in Tagammu Al-Khamis shortly. Morsi to vote at Zagazig polling station at 11 AM (Egypt time).
6/16, 3:11 AM: Journalists are reporting relatively high participation rates at a number of polling stations considering the early time. Independent monitoring organization Shayfeencom can be reached at 16951 if citizens wish to report any violations over the phone.
6/16, 3:04 AM:
State TV: those boycotting runoff pay a fine 100 EGP, those force voters to vote for a specific candidate face jail term of up to 5 years.— Jonathan Rashad (@JonathanRashad) June 16, 2012
6/16, 2:56 AM: A tweet depicting a lack of satisfaction with the voting choices on the ballot.
In a perfect world, today's ballot would read ?Shafiq ?Morsi ?None of the above— Nada Iskandar (@nadaskandar) June 16, 2012
6/16, 2:43 AM: According to Al-Masry Al-Youm, there are 13,101 subsidary voting centers nationwide, 351 general voting committees (for observation), and 9,339 voting centers. 14,509 judges are observing the elections (1,200 female judges and other female Ministry of Justice employees are present to check the identities of women wearing the niqab).
6/16, 2:14 AM:
6/16, 2:04 AM: Lines are already getting long as polling stations only start to open. Al-Jazeera covers various polling stations in Cairo, Shobra, and Tanta (photo below via FJparty).
6/16, 2:00 AM: Polling stations open across Egypt, marking the first day of voting.
This is simply because a new constitution will be drafted, followed by new parliamentary elections to take on the legislative power; and therefore it is not possible in any event for the president to remain in office after a new constitution comes to the light."